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對不鏽鋼鑄造的介紹
[作者:aowl] [日期:18-02-06] [瀏覽次數:] [來源:http://www.mobiinet.com]
鑄造工藝通常包括:鑄造工藝可分為三個基本部分,即鑄造金屬準備、鑄型準備和鑄件處理。 鑄造金屬是指鑄造生產中用於澆注鑄件的金屬材料,它是以一種金屬元素為主要成分,並加入其他金屬或非金屬元素而組成的合金,習慣上稱為鑄造合金,主要有鑄鐵、鑄鋼和鑄造有色合金。 ①鑄型(使液態金屬成為固態鑄件的容器)準備,鑄型按所用材料可分為砂型、金屬型、陶瓷型、泥型、石墨型等,按使用次數可分為一次性型、半永久型和永久型,鑄型準備的優劣是影響鑄件質量的主要因素;②鑄造金屬的熔化與澆注,鑄造金屬(鑄造合金)主要有鑄鐵、鑄鋼和鑄造有色合金;③鑄件處理和檢驗,鑄件處理包括清除型芯和鑄件表麵異物、切除澆冒口、鏟磨毛刺和披縫等凸出物以及熱處理、整形、防鏽處理和粗加工等。金屬熔煉不僅僅是單純的熔化,還包括冶煉過程,使澆進鑄型的金屬,在溫度、化學成分和純淨度方麵都符合預期要求。為此,在熔煉過程中要進行以控製質量為目的的各種檢查測試,液態金屬在達到各項規定指標後方能允許澆注。有時,為了達到更高要求,金屬液在出爐後還要經爐外處理,如脫硫、真空脫氣、爐外精煉、孕育或變質處理等。熔煉金屬常用的設備有衝天爐、電弧爐、感應爐、電阻爐、反射爐等。鑄造熱是由於吸入在熔煉銅時產生的高分散度的氧化鋅煙霧所引起的一種急性發熱反應。有人報道鉛、錫、銻、鎳等的金屬氧化物煙霧亦可引起此症。防止金屬煙霧的逸散,是預防鑄造熱的根本辦法。在熔煉、澆鑄等操作時要加強密閉化,安裝局部排風除塵設備,回收氧化鋅。加強全麵通風、戴防煙霧口罩可作為輔助性措施。我國鑄造業正處在從鑄造大國向鑄造強國起步的新階段。必須克服現實的能源、資源、人才瓶頸和環境問題的困擾。因此,必須抓住機遇,利用高技術提升鑄件質量,扭轉中國鑄件在國際市場上技術含量不高、價格低廉的形象。要扶持一批具有優勢的鑄造企業使之成為具有國際競爭力的帶動中國鑄件出口的龍頭企業。 The casting process usually includes: the casting process can be divided into three basic parts, namely, the preparation of the cast metal, the preparation of the mold and the treatment of the casting. Casting metal refers to casting pouring casting metal material used in the production, it is a kind of metal elements as the main ingredient, and adding other metal or nonmetal elements and the composition of the alloy, traditionally known as the main cast alloy, cast iron, cast steel and cast nonferrous alloys. The mold (liquid metal castings become a container solid preparation, mold) according to the material used can be divided into sand, metal, ceramic, clay, graphite, according to the frequency of use can be divided into single type, semi permanent and permanent mold preparation, quality is the main factor affecting the quality of castings the melting and casting; casting metal casting, metal (alloy) main cast iron, cast steel and cast nonferrous alloy castings; the processing and inspection, casting processing cores and casting surface including the removal of foreign body, resection of sprue, grinding burrs and fash protrusions and shaping, heat treatment, anti rust treatment and rough machining. Metal melting is not only a simple melting process, but also a smelting process. The casting metal is in accordance with the expected requirements in terms of temperature, chemical composition and purity. Therefore, in the process of smelting, various inspection tests should be carried out for the purpose of controlling the quality, and the liquid metal can be allowed to be cast after reaching the specified targets. Sometimes, in order to meet the higher requirements, liquid metal must be treated outside the furnace after desulphurization, such as desulphurization, vacuum degassing, refining outside furnace, inoculation or modification. The common equipment for smelting metal is a cupola, an arc furnace, an induction furnace, a resistance furnace, a reflecting furnace and so on. The casting heat is caused by an acute fever caused by the high dispersion of Zinc Oxide smoke inhaled in the smelting of copper. It is reported that metal oxide smog, such as lead, tin, antimony and nickel, can also cause this disease. To prevent the metal smoke emission, is the fundamental way to prevent casting heat. In the smelting, casting and other operations to strengthen the airtight, installation of local exhaust dust removal equipment, the recovery of Zinc Oxide. Strengthening the comprehensive ventilation and wearing smoke mask can be used as an auxiliary measure. China's foundry industry is in a new stage of starting from a big casting country to a powerful casting power. It is necessary to overcome the problems of energy, resources, talent bottlenecks and environmental problems. Therefore, it is necessary to seize the opportunity to use high technology to improve the quality of castings and to reverse the image of low technology and low price of Chinese castings in the international market. It is necessary to support a number of advantageous foundry enterprises to become the leading enterprises with international competitiveness to drive the export of China's castings.

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