[作者：aowl] [日期：18-07-11] [瀏覽次數：] [來源：http://www.mobiinet.com]
①鑄型（使液態金屬成為固態鑄件的容器）準備，鑄型按所用材料可分為砂型、金屬型、陶瓷型、泥型、石墨型等，按使用次數可分為一次性型、半永久型和永久型，鑄型準備的優劣是影響鑄件質量的主要因素；②鑄造金屬的熔化與澆注，鑄造金屬（鑄造合金）主要有鑄鐵、鑄鋼和鑄造有色合金；③鑄件處理和檢驗，鑄件處理包括清除型芯和鑄件表麵異物、切除澆冒口、鏟磨毛刺和披縫等凸出物以及熱處理、整形、防鏽處理和粗加工等。金屬熔煉不僅僅是單純的熔化，還包括冶煉過程，使澆進鑄型的金屬，在溫度、化學成分和純淨度方麵都符合預期要求。為此，在熔煉過程中要進行以控製質量為目的的各種檢查測試，液態金屬在達到各項規定指標後方能允許澆注。有時，為了達到更高要求，金屬液在出爐後還要經爐外處理，如脫硫、真空脫氣、爐外精煉、孕育或變質處理等。熔煉金屬常用的設備有衝天爐、電弧爐、感應爐、電阻爐、反射爐等。鑄造熱是由於吸入在熔煉銅時產生的高分散度的氧化鋅煙霧所引起的一種急性發熱反應。有人報道鉛、錫、銻、鎳等的金屬氧化物煙霧亦可引起此症。防止金屬煙霧的逸散，是預防鑄造熱的根本辦法。在熔煉、澆鑄等操作時要加強密閉化，安裝局部排風除塵設備，回收氧化鋅。加強全麵通風、戴防煙霧口罩可作為輔助性措施。我國鑄造業正處在從鑄造大國向鑄造強國起步的新階段。必須克服現實的能源、資源、人才瓶頸和環境問題的困擾。 (1) casting (making liquid metal as a container for solid castings), the mold can be divided into sand, metal, ceramic, mud, graphite, etc. according to the used material, and can be divided into one time, semi permanent and permanent type according to the number of use. The quality of casting preparation is the main factor affecting the quality of castings; Melting and pouring, cast metal (cast alloy) mainly include cast iron, cast steel and cast nonferrous alloy; (3) castings treatment and inspection, casting treatment including clearance core and surface foreign body of castings, excision pouring and riser, spade burr and slit and other protrusions as well as heat treatment, plastic, rust prevention treatment and rough processing. Metal smelting is not only pure melting, but also smelting process, making casting metal in place, in terms of temperature, chemical composition and purity are in line with the desired requirements. For this purpose, various inspection tests should be carried out in the melting process to control the quality. Liquid metal can be allowed to pour after reaching all the required specifications. Sometimes, in order to meet the higher requirements, the molten metal must be treated outside the furnace after being released, such as desulphurization, vacuum degassing, refining outside furnace, inoculation or modification. Melting metal commonly used equipment has cupola, electric arc furnace, induction furnace, resistance furnace, reverberatory furnace and so on. The casting heat is an acute fever caused by the high dispersion of Zinc Oxide smoke caused by the inhalation of copper. It has been reported that lead, tin, antimony, nickel and other metal oxide fumes can also cause this disease. Preventing metal smoke from escaping is the fundamental way to prevent casting heat. In smelting and casting operations, we should strengthen the airtight, install local exhaust dust removal equipment, and recover Zinc Oxide. Strengthening comprehensive ventilation and wearing smog respirators can be used as supplementary measures. China's foundry industry is in the new stage of starting from a big casting power to a strong casting power. We must overcome the problems of energy, resources, talents and environmental problems.