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機械零件設計必須掌握的基本知識
[作者:aowl] [日期:18-09-03] [瀏覽次數:] [來源:http://www.mobiinet.com]

1、新產品從設計研發到上市銷售的一般流程: The general flow of new products from design and development to marketing: 大體分為四個部分:產品規劃階段、方案設計階段、技術設計階段和設計加工文檔編製階段。 It is divided into four parts: the product planning stage, the design phase of the plan, the technical design phase and the design processing document. 2、機械零件的工作能力和計算準則 2, the working ability and the calculation criterion of mechanical parts 機械零件喪失規定的功能,稱為失效。在不發生失效的條件下,在規定期限內,零件所能工作的限度,稱為零件的工作能力,通常這個限度是對載荷而言,所以又稱承載能力。 The function of loss of mechanical parts is called failure. Under the condition of without failure, within a prescribed period, the limits of parts can work, referred to as the working ability of the parts, this limit is usually for load, so also called carrying capacity. 進行機械零件設計時,必須根據零件的失效形式分析失效的原因,提出防止或減輕失效的措施,根據不同的失效形式提出不同的設計計算準則。機械零件的設計計算準則,概括起來主要包括以下幾種: Design of mechanical parts, must according to the failure reasons of failure modes analysis of components, puts forward the measures to prevent or mitigate the failure, according to different failure forms different standards of design and calculation are put forward. The principles of design and calculation of mechanical parts shall include the following: 強度準則: 應力≤許用應力; Rule of strength: stress is less than allowable stress; 剛度準則: 變形量≤許用變形量; Rule of rigidity: the amount of deformation is less than the amount of deformation; 耐磨性準則: 壓強≤許用壓強; Wearability criterion: pressure is less than or equal to pressure; 3、機械零件設計的一般流程: General flow of mechanical parts: 根據零件的使用要求,選擇零件的類型或結構; Choosing the type or structure of the parts according to the use of the parts; 根據零件的工作條件及對零件的特殊要求,選擇合適的材料和熱處理方法; Selecting suitable materials and heat treatment methods according to the working condition of the parts and special requirements of the parts. 根據零件的工作情況,確定作用於零件上的載荷(包括建立力學模型、進行載荷分析和計算、考慮各種因素對載荷的影響及確定零件的計算載荷); According to the parts of the work situation, determine the load acting on the parts  (including establishing mechanical model, load analysis and calculation, considering the influence of various factors on the load and determining the computing load). 根據零件可能出現的失效形式,確定計算準則,並計算和確定出零件的基本尺寸; Determine the calculation criteria and calculate and determine the basic dimensions of the parts according to the possible failure forms of the parts; 根據工藝性和標準化等要求進行零件的結構設計; Design of parts according to the requirements of technology and standardization; 必要時應對零件進行校核計算; To do the verification calculation of the parts when necessary; 繪出零件的工作圖; Working diagram of drawing parts; 4、產品設計需要注意的設計原則: Design principles for product design: 簡化零件的功能或形狀; To simplify the function or shape of a part; 最大限度地實現產品的標準化、通用化、係列化; Maximizing the standardization, generalisation, and serialization of products; 盡可能使設計圖紙中所規定的材料牌號、品種、規格與現有材料的使用情況一致; To be consistent with the use of the materials, varieties, specifications and existing materials as stipulated in the design drawings 將毛坯工藝與加工工藝更有效地結合起來考慮; The combination of billet processing and processing technology is more effective. 根據企業當前正常生產所采用的加工工藝、操作規則及相關信息來判斷工藝設計的合理性; To judge the rationality of process design according to the process, operation rules and relevant information of current normal production of enterprises; 選擇成熟加工工藝能保障的尺寸公差和表麵粗糙度; Choose the size tolerances and surface roughness of the mature process.

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